Showing posts with label Business Communication. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Business Communication. Show all posts

11 September, 2014

America knows how to market itself, its products, and its ideas. For better or for worse, for richer or poorer, American marketing creativity, power, and prestige influence consumers the world over.

PhilipKotler, best known for the marketing principle of the four Ps—product, price, promotion, and place—takes us on a guided tour of American marketing, including its origins and trends, its relationship to economics, and its criticisms. 

His talk will include examples of exemplary marketing. Kotler is professor of marketing at Northwestern University's Kellogg School of Management, and his textbooks serve as the basis for graduate business programs worldwide.

26 March, 2013

Date :05-01-2010 
Lecture : 35
Dhaka Commerce College.

A notice is a statement containing the details of holding a meeting,notice refers to an invitation in writing to the concerned persons for attending in the meeting.

"A notice is the communication verbal or written informing the persons entitled to attend the meeting about the time,date,place and business of the meeting".

                                                                                                                                 > S.K.Dutta.

Special feature of notice:

  • Preparing and serving notice is an essential requirement of a valid meeting.
  • Notice of meeting should contain data,time,place,agenda of the meeting.
  • Notice maybe written or oral.
  • Type of meeting annual general meeting,extra general meeting,board meeting etc.

Finally we can say that,a notice is a message send to the members requesting or inviting them of attend the meeting on per-specified data,time and place.

Date :04-01-2010 
Lecture : 34
Dhaka Commerce College.

When to or more people come together to discuss matters of common interest,it can be termed as a meeting.Meeting is a common event in business,social,political, religious or in state organization.

Some important definition of meeting are given below-

"A meeting is a gathering of two or more people where propulsive discourse occurs".

                                                                                                                        > Murphy & Others

"Meeting means assembling together of  two or more persons on a fixed date and at a fixed time and place to discuss some meters to take decision".

                                                                                                                         > J.P.Bose

"A meeting is an occasion when people come together to discuss or decides something."

                                                                                                      > Oxford Dictionary of Business

Special feature of the definition:
  • Meeting is a gathering with the view of making diction through discussion.
  • Meeting is the major forms of oral communication.
  • In a meeting exchanges views on any meter of common interest.
  • Companies call meeting for transacting different business.

Finally we can say that,meeting means gathering together of two or more persons on a fixed data and at a fixed and place to discuss some meters to take decision.

Date :29-12-2009 
Lecture : 33
Dhaka Commerce College.

Importance of horizontal communication is as follows-

1.Quick solution of problems

2.Increase the efficiency of peers

3.Developing informal relationships

4.Co-ordination of activities

5.Enhancing mutual understanding

6.Improve inter-department communication

7.Less distortion of information

8. Strength ending group efforts

9.Performing in the department communication

10.Gain benefits of informal communication

11.Dynamism of workplace.

Importance of Horizontal

Date :29-12-2009 
Lecture : 33
Dhaka Commerce College.

Exchange of information between people same level of an organizational hierarchy is called horizontal communication.
This communication supplies information neither to superiors not to subordinates.Rather information is exchanged between people holding the same rank,position or status.

"Horizontal communication involves,colleagues and peers at the same level of the organization"

                                                                                                                                 > R.W.Griffin  

"Horizontal communication occurs between workers at generally equal levels in an organization 

                                                                                                                               > Risks & Gow 

"Horizontal communication occurs when the commendatory and the receiver are at the same level in the organization.

                                                                                                                      > Ivancevich & Other

The graphical presentation of horizontal communication is an follow -

Horizontal Communication

Finally we can say that,Horizontal communication occurs between workers at generally equal levels in an organization.


Date :23-12-2009 
Lecture : 32
Dhaka Commerce College.

The importance of internal communication are following below:

1. Exchange of news and views

2.Preparation & execution of plan



5. Elimination of rumors


7.Development of employee efficiency

8.Ensuring job satisfaction

9. Redoes work stress 

10.Increasing employee morale

11.Development of managerial efficiency

12. Musial understanding and co-operation.


25 March, 2013

Date :22-12-2009 

Lecture : 31
Dhaka Commerce College.

Communication taking places with in the purview of organizational area call internal communication.In others works when people of the same organization exchange information between and among themselves it can be termed as internal communication.Internal communication can be downward or upward and horizontal.It can be written or oral.
Internal Communication

"Internal communication concise in transmitting information with in the organization."

                                                                                                           < R.P. Pal & J.S.Korahalli

"Message exchange between higher official, executives and employees of a same or organization is known as internal communication."

                                                                                                                 < S.P.Arora

Form the above dis cation we can say that-

  • It is a type of communication which ac-curs internally
  • It is the transmission of information between same level on different level organizational employee.
  • It can be formal or informal.
Finally we can say that,the communication taking places with in purview of organizational area call for internal communication.


24 March, 2013

Date :19-12-2009 
Lecture : 30
Dhaka Commerce College.

Difference between upward & downward


  • It is a process of sending a message from a superior to a subordinate.
  • It is opposite to downward communication it flows from subordinate to superior.

  • Such communication includes instructions,orders, advice's and the like.So it is directive in nature.
  • It includes suggestions, coalmines and the like so.It is non directive in nature.

  • It is suitably found is an authoritarian environment.
  • It is found in a democratic environment.

  • It is to supply the subordinates with relevant information.
  • It serves the purpose of feedback whether the subordinates have properly received the message.

  • It takes place several times to give order,advice and directions to subordinate.
  • It does not occur so frequently.

  • People find little scope to distort the message hare because such communication authoritarian.
  • Message can be distorted here intentionally as subordinates have expectations to be fulfilled such as job promotion.

  • Here higher authority takes the initiative to make communication.
  • Here lower level employees take initiative to establish communication.

  • It is an instruction type of management.
  • It is as like as consultative management.


Date :17-12-2009 
Lecture : 29
Dhaka Commerce College.

Advantages of downward communication

1.Efficiency: Subordinates get the necessary information from the superiors.As a result,they can perform their duties and thus their efficiency is increased.

2.Systematic flow: Because of the systematic flow of information under this communication,it is possible to maintain good relations at all stages of the organization.

3.Discipline: Chain of command is completely maintained in downward communication.So a sense of discipline is developed among the employees.

4.To inform: Policies and procedures designed by the upper level management are required to be communicated to the subordinates and therefore superiors take the help of downward communication.

5.Explanation: Subordinates need explanation of organizational policies,procedures,practice and rules etc.These explanations are sent to subordinates through downward communication.

6.No by passing: As chain of command is clear in downward communication,so no superior can send any message to may subordinate through by passing the immediate next subordinate.

7.Delegation of authority: Delegation of authority is facilitated through downward communication.This is possible because such communication flows from upper level to the lower level of an organization.

8.Developing functional relation: Downward communication is helpful to increase functional relation among the officers and the lower level employees.Sender and receiver both have the mentality to work together to fulfill the assigned task.

9.To begin action: Such communication inspires the employees to task initiative because they are aware regarding their specific tasks.So,downward communication helps to begin action.

10.Completeness: This is a complete form of communication because the boss is conscious about every pattern of communication.

Date :15-12-2009 
Lecture : 28
Dhaka Commerce College.
Objectives of Downward Communication

1.To give idea: With the help of downward communication objectives,policies,rules are explained to the subordinates by superior to give complete understanding.

2.To give direction: To direct any assignment,job or task to the subordinates,superior makes downward communication.

3.Assignment of job: To assign job according to efficiency of the workers,superior makes justification through downward communication.

4.To encourage: Employees are required to be motivated to work more to achieve organizational objectives.Management has to resort to downward communication to encourage the lower level employees.

5.To evaluate: Supervisors evaluate works performed by the employees.Downward communication is used to inform the employees of their evaluations.

6.To inform job rationale: An important objective of this type of communication is to give information regarding the rationale of the task assigned and its relation to other organizational task.

7.To inform job significance: Use of downward communication also helps to inform the subordinates regarding the significance of the job entrusted to them.

8.To control: Since necessary instructions are forwarded through downward communication,employees are very much aware about their task and activities.Therefore such communication can act as a control tool.

9.To explain about change: Changes are dependent to circumstances.When there is any change in respect of plans,policies,procedures or rules etc. such are communication with explanation through downward communication.

10.To maintain discipline: Such communication follows the organizational hierarchy,so every section unit or department must follow the set rules or procedure.As a result discipline is ensured.


Date :14-12-2009 

Lecture : 27
Dhaka Commerce College.

Downward communication  is the communication in which information flows from superior to subordinates.Through downward communication,managers communicate organizational goal policies, Procrustes,orders,instructions, diction there subordinates.

Downward communication can be written or oral.Written forms of downward communication are notices,handbook, electronic news display etc.

Oral communication maybe speeches, meetings, telephone conversation etc.

"A message that flows from a supervisor to supervise is known as downward communication."   

                                                                                                                                >Boone &Others

"Messages which go from the higher authority levels to the lower level are downward communication."

                                                                                                                                > Dr. Urmilla Rai

"Downward communication is the flow of information through the higher level to lower level.

                                                                                                                                  > S.P.Arora.

The downward communication flows in the following way:

Fig:Downward Communication

Special Features:

1.Information flows from superior to subordinate.
2.Downward communication maybe written or oral.
3.It maybe direction,instructions,orders etc.
4.Feedback on performance
5.Work assignments and directions.

Finally we can say that when message flows from upward downward,it is considered as downward communication.


21 March, 2013

Date :08-12-2009 
Lecture : 26
Dhaka Commerce College.

Elements of Upward Communication
Elements of Upward Communication

1. Participation approaches of management

2. Confidence on sub-ordinates

3. Shorter communication channel

4. Provide reward for good suggestion

5. Change auto critic attitude

6. Solve problem with care

7. Consider human perception

8. Open door policy

9. Create demographic environment.


Date :07-112-2009 
Lecture : 25
Dhaka Commerce College.

It is not very easy to have a smooth upward communication. Although upward communication is merited with many advantages but it is not very easy to have a smooth upward flow due to following reasons:

Disadvantages of upward communication
Disadvantages of Upward Communication

1. Distortion: Upward communication is intentionally distorted. Such distortion hampers the real objective of any communication.

2. Unwillingness: Employees are usually reluctant to start upward communication. The managers might keep their doors open but they cannot force the employees to walk into their room.

3. Fear: Employees often feel that if they communicate their problems to their superiors it may affect negatively to their efficiency. The complaint or criticism placed by the subordinates may be interpreted as a sign of their personal weakness or limitation.

4. By passing: In the process of upward communication, sometimes workers directly approach the top most authority with their suggestions or by passing their immediate boss. This proves harmful in two ways. The relations become poor between superiors and workers and works are damaged.

5. Recklessness: Taking the opportunity of upward communication, sometimes the subordinates behave desperately with their bosses. This can hamper the chain of command in any organization.

6. Flattery: In order to convince the superiors, subordinates can take the help of flattery. Decision taken on such incomplete information will be wrong to serve the organizational purpose.

7. Insufficiency: Subordinates may not be aware regarding the sufficiency or completeness of any information. Inadequate information will bring zero outcomes.

8. Errors and omission: Most of the lower level employees are not aware regarding many aspects of an organization. During performance of any upward communication they may commit errors and mistakes.

Date :17-11-2009 
Lecture : 24
Dhaka Commerce College.

Upward communication plays a vital role for attaining organization goal. The respective advantages of such communication are as follows:

advantages of upward communication
Advantages of Upward Communication

1. Decision Making: Upper management wants to know specific information regarding production, procurement, marketing, financial matters and so on before making any decision. Subordinates supply the related information through upward communication and thus decision making is made easier and quick.

2. Providing Counsel: Subordinates can provide their constructive opinions to the superiors through upward communication. These opinions may be useful to the achievement of organizational goals.

3.Motivation: Up-word communication allows the lower level staff to express their attitude or opinion to upper level staff. As a result subordinates are influenced to work more towards fulfillment to target.

4. Feedback: Through such communication, the subordinates send back their reactions to the decision sent by the superiors. Thus upper level management can ensure whether the lower level employees have accepted the message sent by the superiors.

16 March, 2013

Date :14-11-2009 
Lecture : 23
Dhaka Commerce College.

When information flows from subordinates to superior it is called up-word communication.The purpose of up-word communication is provide information to the managers from sub ordination.

Upword Communication
Fig:Up-word Communication

"Up-word communication consist of message from sub ordinates to superiors. "
                                                                                                                              >Ricky W.Griffing.

"Communication that flows from a subordinator to a supervisor is know as upward communication ."

"Up-word communication refers the flow of information from the lower level to the higher level.

Special Feature:

1.Sub ordinates convey their opinions suggestions complaints their superiors.
2.The lower label employees  initiate up-word communication
3.Progress and performance reports

Finally we can concluded that communication where information flows from subordinates to superiors is noon as up word communication.    


13 March, 2013

Date :03-11-2009 
Lecture : 22
Dhaka Commerce College.

Circular letter
Circular Letter

Standard Chartered Bank
Shel Shopping Center
2/A,Dhanmondi Commercial Area

03rd November,2009

Dear Valued Customers,

We have moved from .........
circular letter

In the last 20 year we have grown with your co-operation and patronage.Our old paremises became to small for us.Many times it was so crowded in the bank.

Now you can filling it plesent to bank on our new premises with more facilities mat for you.Now we have ATM services,Cride card services,Call center faccilities etc.for your saticfaction.

A vist to standard chartered bank is a total experience with all sort of modern banking.Please call us for any type of quary regarding your banking.

Make satadard chartered bank a trested banking paters of yours.

Cordially yours.
(Md.Fuzail Ahmed)
Branch Manager,
Standard Charterd Bank.

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